Biography of Meghnad Saha (Indian Scientist)

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Biography of Meghnad Saha (Indian Scientist)

Meghnad Saha

Meghnad Saha was a great Indian scientist. He is famous for his contribution in the field of Astrophysics. He formulated the ‘Saha ionization Equation’ that is popularly known as ‘Saha Equation’.

He was born on the 6th October, 1893, in an obscure village in Dhaka. He was the fifth son of Jagannath Saha and Bhubaneswari Devi.

Though he was an extremely brilliant person, he preferred to lead a simple life. His daily needs were limited, and always wanted to serve the humanity at large.

Early Life:

Though Meghnad Saha came of a poor family, yet the extreme poverty could not suppress his indomitable scientific spirit. Having completed his early education in the Village Pathshala (school), he joined Simulia Middle School and then he came to Jubilee School in Dacca. In 1909, he passed the Entrance Examination securing first position. He stood third in ISC Examination in 1911.

Meghnad Saha passed B.Sc. with Honors in Chemistry from Presidency College in 1913. In 1915 he stood first in M. Sc. Examination.


Meghnad Saha started his service career as a Professor of Calcutta University. He became a world famous figure during the short span of his life. He took the challenge to introduce new branch of science in Calcutta University to satisfy the appetite of young generations. He entered into the luminous circle of Einstein. His valuable research is on ‘Radiation’. ‘Herbart classification of ‘stellar spectro’ drew the attention of the world famous scientists. His research papers were greatly appreciated by the scientist all over the country.

Meghnad Saha obtained D.Sc. Degree in recognition of his great scholastic research on Radiation. He also got the Roychand Premchand scholarship for his research on ‘Stellar Spectra’. He started for Europe for further research on various subjects.


The contribution of Meghnad Saha to physics is great. He had also great mastery over nuclear physics, Spectro Chemistry, Kinetics and Ionosphere. His scientific knowledge is fully expressed in explaining the theory of ‘Ion’ which is specially known as ‘Saha’s theory of thermal Ionization. This theory determines the mutual distances ingredients and intensity of heat of the heavenly bodies in the sky. He threw new light on the specific gravity of light and Law of Relativity. In collaboration with Satyendra Nath Bose he published ‘Saha Bose theory’ which was dealt with the subject of ‘gas’.

Meghnad Saha tried his best to cultivate science-culture in our country. Being a Member of Parliament he demanded a favorable atmosphere to encourage the aspirant scientists. So, he was the precursor of the modern science in India.

In 1926, he became the president of Indian Science Congress. He becomes the president of Indian Science Congress in Bombay conference. He was the founder of the Institutes of nuclear physics. Several scientific institutions were established with his support.

He had expert knowledge for river valley projects. He is the original architect of ‘Damodar Valley Project.

The various works of Meghnad Saha can be found in the book titled ”Complete Works of Meghnad Saha’.


Meghnad Saha died on 16th February 1956 and caused a vacuum in the world of science. On the auspicious hour of centenary government has launched a programme to introduce an award to commemorate the memory of this great Scientist.

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