CBSE Class 9 English Letter Writing – Articles

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CBSE Class 9 English Letter Writing – Articles



The students will be asked to attempt a long piece of composition of minimum 100-120 words in length. The composition will be in the form of an article. The students may be provided with a verbal or visual input. They can take help from the given input, information or notes and can expand them in their own language to 100-120 words. Sometimes the given input can be in the form of a figure, a diagram or a cartoon. The aim of the examiner by inserting an input is only to provide clues along which the article has to be developed. The subject on which the article can be based may be burning social, cultural, economic, ethical, behavioural, religious and political issues. You may be asked to write an article on any topic under the sun.


  1. Always study the given input, information or notes carefully.
  2. Arrange them in a systematic order.
  3. Develop each point in a simple, grammatically correct language.
  4. Your article must present your ideas not in a sketchy but in a coherent and logical manner. Develop your writing into paragraphs.
  5. Confine yourself to the given subject. Superfluous and unnecessary details must be avoided at all cost.


Question 1:
Taking help from the verbal input given below along with your own views, write an article on ‘Cleaning and Rejuvenating the Ganga’. You are Nikhi/Neha.
Hints: • Cleaning the Ganga • an unprecedented national social effort • Govt, committed to clean and rejuvenate the Ganga • SC not satisfied • a time bond proposal to fulfill the mission • inland waterways • river navigation • extending sewerage infrastructure • prevent open defecation • restoring wholesomeness of the Ganga • development of ghats • Zero liquid discharge by   industries • provisions for public amenities for pilgrims and tourists.
Cleaning and Rejuvenating the Ganga                                                                                       —Nikhi/Neha
The Ganga is not merely a river for all the Indians and more particularly to the Hindus, but it is the lifeline of India and the physical and spiritual nourisher of crores of its people. It is a symbol of India’s great heritage, ancient traditions, cultures, songs and stories. We can’t think of India without the Ganga and the Himalayas. Unfortunately, the sacred Ganga has become one of the most polluted rivers of the world in recent years. Fortunately, the Modi government has shown its commitment to clean and rejuvenate the Ganga. Uma Bharti heads a specially created ministry for cleaning the holy river. Cleaning the Ganga will be an unprecedented national social effort. What makes the Ganga a heavily polluted river? Various factors and causes contribute to make the river what it is. The worst criminals are more than one thousand industries that discharge their toxic wastes into the river. The government will have to take strict measures to treat solid and liquid discharges making them totally pollution free. The sewerage infrastructure will have to be exteftded and updated. The people residing on the banks will be involved and enlightened. Burning and throwing of dead bodies into the river must be stopped. Open defecation on the banks will have to be stopped.
Development of ghats at Kedamath, Haridwar, Varanasi, Kanpur, Allahabad and Patna is an important feature of the plan. Provisions for public amenities for pilgrims and tourists will be made. Inland waterways river navigation will be another priority.

Question 2:
Taking help from the information given below and inventing your own ideas, write an article on ‘Swachha Bharat Abhiyan’ or ‘Clean India Campaign’.
Hints: • ‘Swachha Bharat Abhiyan’ • announced by the PM on 15th August, 2014 • launched on 2nd October • addressed public rally at Rajpath • himself swept a parking at Mandir Marg Police Station and pavement in Valmiki Basti • aims to accomplish the vision ‘Clean India’ by 2019 • 3 million govt, employees and students to participate • responsibility of all 1.25 billion Indians • not only the responsibility of ‘Safai Kaamgar’ • mission beyond politics • inspired by patriotism • good response on the social media.
Swachha Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Campaign                                                                            —Abhishek
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched his nationwide cleanliness campaign, the ‘Swachha Bharat Abhiyan’ or ‘Clean India Campaign’ from the Valmiki Basti on 2nd October, 2014. Addressing the nation at the launch, Modi asked 1.25 billion people to join the ‘ Swachha Bharat Abhiyan’ and promote it to everyone. Modi himself swept a pavement at Valmiki Basti, a colony of sanitary workers. Launching the campaign, Modi reminded the people that cleanliness is not only the responsibility of the ‘Safai Kamgars’ but also the responsibility of 1.25 billion Indians. The Prime Minister assured the nation that ‘Swachha Bharat Abhiyan’ is beyond politics.
The Prime Minister also started a social media campaign. He invited nine people to join the campaign and they would invite another nine people. He invited master blaster Sachin Tendulkar, Bolywood stars Aamir Khan, Priyanka Chopra, Salman Khan, Yoga Guru Baba Ramdev and industrialists like the Ambanis. The Prime Minister showed his deep concern at mothers and daughters going in the open to relieve themselves. More than 60% people in India defecate in the open. Constructing toilets in schools and villages, particularly for girls and women, would be the top priority for the government. The Prime Minister also pledged to people saying, “I would not litter and won’t allow anyone to do so”.

Question 3:
You happened to overhear the following conversation:
Rahul : Where have you planned to go during the summer holidays?
Jeevan: I wish I could go and enjoy boating on the Dal Lake.
Rahul : Is it safe to go to Kashmir now? Don’t you hear a lot about terrorism in the newspapers?
On hearing this dialogue you decide to write an article for a local daily on the need to provide security at tourist spots and suggest ways and means by which such spots could be made more attractive to tourists. Using ideas from the unit on ‘Travel and Tourism’ along with your own ideas, write the article.
Tourism and Terrorism                                                                                                                       —Shifali
Kashmir is called the ‘Paradise on Earth’. It is quite unfortunate that this paradise is living in the shadow of terrorism. The peace and tranquility of the valley has been shattered by the acts of terrorism. The valley echoes with the bursts of bullets. Gone are the days when the Dal Lake was overtaken by the inflow of tourists from different parts of the world. Now empty hotels and unoccupied shikaras look towards tourists to occupy them. Tourism in the valley is in shambles. The biggest source of income to the state and the local people has disappeared. The unabated terrorism of the two decades has tarnished the grandeur and glory of Kashmir. Tourism and terrorism can’t go together. Law and order must be restored. The youth of Kashmir and other places of tourist interest have the biggest stake to maintain peace and harmony. Local handicrafts and artefacts are in great demand in every part of India. If peace and order is maintained, Kashmir will not take long to attain its old grandeur and glory.

Question 4:
Pramod/Pramila comes across the following visual in a magazine. He/She feels quite happy to see the progress made by India since its Independence. He/She decides to write an article for the school magazine on the topic entitled “India’s Progress since Independence”. Using ideas from the visual and your own ideas, write the article.

India’s Progress Since Independence                                                                                   —Pramod/Pramila
India has paced with the times. It has made herculean efforts to change its old and discredited image. Till 1970s, India was considered to be a land of famines, droughts, beggars and snake charmers. But in the last three or four decades it has made a tremendous progress. India’s economic and industrial might has been universally recognised. Now India is being counted as one of the fastest emerging economies of the world. In 1960s, we had to depend on the mercy of the Western countries to survive. But now we are self-sufficient in food. India has emerged as the second largest paddy producer in the world. It is the second largest sugar producer as well. Mechanization of agriculture and the Green Revolution has led to the self-sufficiency despite rapid increase in population. With emphasis on Horticulture, India has emerged as the largest producer of fruits and the second largest producer of vegetables. The White Revolution has made India the largest producer of milk. The Indian pharma industry ranks 4th in the world. India has made rapid strides in defence preparedness. India’s progress in industry is really breathtaking. India’s progress in space technology only matches with the advanced nations of the world. India is on the move. It will attain new heights in future.
Disaster management programmes have not proved up to the mark and up to the task. The Government and the concerned agencies should provide comprehensive aids and help to the survivors, particularly the children. They must provide nutritious food, clothes, shelters and medical aids to them. All efforts should be made to wipe out the scars left by these disasters.

Question 5:
Man is basically a social animal. He depends on others for his survival and existence. He has to work with others and must know how to get the best out of a team. Taking these ideas, write an article on ‘How to Get the Best out of a Team’.
How to Get the Best out of a Team                                                                                                   —Surbhi
Man is a social animal. He can’t live in vacuum. He has to depend on others to make a living. He has to bond with others and be a part of a team. Working in a team is quite a challenge. One ha§ to adjust himself to the requirements of his team. A team must work like a well oiled machine. Only then it can produce great results. All the members of a team must work together selflessly to achieve a common aim or goal.
Working in a team is really a healer and a stress buster. Success or failure is not an individual’s responsibility. It is a collective responsibility. A good teamwork demands a perfect and effective communication between all the members of the team. A strong leadership controls the individuals and goad them to achieve the common goal. Conflicts are avoided. The focus is on unity and cooperation. Mutual jealousy and conflict of interests have no place in a team. Negative attitudes should be discouraged. Each member should have deep respect and appreciation of others’ abilities and skills.

Question 6:
Taking help from the information given below and inventing your own ideas, write an article on ‘Books—Our Best Companions’.
Hints: • Human relations can be deceptive and unreliable • Books—our best companions • Our friends and guides • Educative as well as informative.
Books—Our Best Companions                                                                                                               —Yashita
Man is a social animal. He can’t live in isolation. Our human friends, relatives and companions can prove unreliable and treacherous. They can harm our interests. However, books are our real companions, friends and guides. They enrich humanity. They are a storehouse of knowledge. They have educative as well as informative value and importance. Let us live in the company of books. They will never betray or deceive us. We can look towards them for guidance, learning and entertainment. Shakespeare’s dramas have a universal appeal. Homer, Balmiki and Ved Vyas have given us immortal works. ‘The Ramayana ’ and ‘The Mahabharat ’ are read by millions of people. Keats’ poems are things of beauty that give us joy forever. Tagore’s ‘Gitanjali ’ transports us to a highly spiritual and philosophical world. Prem Chand’s ‘Godan ’ unfolds rustic life and its problems.
Books are our best companions. If you are alone, you can take up a book of your choice and taste it and very soon you become a part of it. Books on travels and adventures are not informative but also quite exciting. The biographies of great men like Lincoln and Gandhi can be a source of inspiration. It is never too late to enter the world of books. The sooner you enter, the better it is.

Question 7:
Over the years there has been a steady increase in the number of students from different towns and cities of India seeking admission in colleges in the metropolitan cities. As a consequence, colleges in the metros have failed to accommodate the rising number of students due to severe shortage of seats. Write an article for your school magazine drawing attention to the anxiety and pressure faced by students during admission time. Suggest ways to combat the shortage of seats. You are Mohan/Mohita, a student of A.K. International School, Agra.
Shortage of Seats in Colleges                                                                                                       —Mohan/Mohita
Over the years there has been a steady increase in the number of students seeking admission in colleges. Most of the students try to seek admission in colleges in the metropolitan cities. Hence, the colleges in the metros have failed to accommodate the rising number of students due to severe shortage of seats. During the last decade, the number of students seeking admission has been rising by 10,000 students every year. The number of seats has remained stationary for the last five years. The result is quite disappointing. Thousands of students miss out their chance of getting higher education. Many others have to console themselves by enrolling themselves on the Correspondence Courses or the Distance Education coaching. The students as well as their parents have to face a lot of anxiety and pressure during the admission time.
The concerned authorities can’t sleep over the problem any longer. The problem should be given the top priority. It demands a comprehensive solution. The colleges in the metros must take immediate steps to increase the number of seats. Another practical suggestion is to make provision for evening classes in the colleges. Evening classes in all the colleges can accommodate most of the students who can’t get admission in the regular Day-colleges. Guest lecturers must be appointed to serve the needs. The authorities must wake up before it is too late.

Question 8:
You are Mansi. You visited “The Green Gardens Resort” during the holidays. Write an article for your school magazine about why the place attracted you. Include the following:
Hints: • Accessibility • Reasonable charges • Hygienic surroundings • Scenic beauty • Facilities   available.
The Green Gardens Resort                                                                                                                       —Mansi
During the autumn vacation, I visited the Green Gardens Resort near Ooty. Situated in the scenic Neelgiri hills, it is really a wonderful resort. It is about ten kilometres from Ooty on the Wellington road. Wrapped in the lush green surroundings, it is just a paradise on earth.
The Green Gardens Resort is spread out in approximately ten acres. It is a luxury resort that caters to the middle and upper-middle class tourists. It offers boarding and lodging with all modem amenities and comforts. The place is surrounded by terraced tea-gardens. Wherever eyes go, one can see only green tea plantations, forests and hills. In the middle of the resort, the main source of attraction is the oval shaped swimming pool. It has two tennis courts, a card room and a couple of billiard tables. The massage parlours and beauty saloons are the other attractions. The environment is divine and the ambience is just superb. It offers a peaceful and relaxed stay far from the madding crowd of the metros.

Question 9:
Using the information given below with your own views, write an article on ‘War on Black Money in India’.
Hints: • Crackdown on black money • G20 summit in London • era of banking secrecy over • India, a strong supporter of the move • black money a political football in India • rather than looking for foreign hand battle must be waged at home, unless generated at home money can’t be transferred abroad • tax rates must be moderate and simple • time to push ahead the new direct tax code.
War on Black Money in India                                                                                                                   —Amit
‘More smoke than light’ has been generated by the current outcry on black money. People think that there is a lot of money out there in Swiss banks. Black money does not remain black ,money for ever. A lot of foreign funds and investments come back to India as white money.Income generated through illegal activities is the basis for generating black money. Global terror business, drugs, arms dealing, real estate, hawala transactions, to name just a few, create ‘black money’.
Fortunately, the global crackdown on black money has begun. The G20 summit in London gave a clear message. The era of ‘banking secrecy’ is over. India is a strong supporter of this move. Black money has become a political football in India. Government must bite off only what it can chew. The success in getting black money depends on international actions and
cooperation among nations. Rather than looking for the foreign hand, the battle against black money must be waged at home. Unless black money is generated at home, unaccounted money can’t be transferred abroad. Centre and states need to work on reforms. Tax rates need to be moderate. The laws must be simple. There should be no temptation to evade. It is time to push ahead with a new direct tax code. This is a long drawn out battle and can be won with a lot of patience and sincerity on the part of the government and the people of the country.

Question 10:
Using the information given in the input, write an article on ‘Child Labour and Battle for Child Rights in India’.
Hints: • Nobel Peace Prize 2014 to India’s Kailash Satyarathi and Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan • The 2001 national census • 12.6 million • aged 5-14 • 217 million children work • 120,000 children work in hazardous jobs • UNICEF estimates • India has the highest labourers under 14 • Article 24 of the constitution prohibits child labour • 32.7 lakh in rural areas • 10.8 lakh in urban areas • carpet industry in Mirzapur • bangle and glass industries in Firozabad • fireworks in Sivakasi.
Child Labour and Battle for Child Rights in India                                                                           —Riya
Kailash Satyarthi brought laurels to the people of India for being awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize 2014 along with Malala for their battle for child safety. The world has appreciated the battle he fought for child rights for years. The term ‘Child Labour’ is actually the work that deprives children of their childhood. It destroys their potentiality and their dignity. In short, it is the kind of work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children. Child labour is the practice of having children engaged in economic activity, on part or full time basis. The constitution of India (Article 24) prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or castle or engaged in any other hazardous employment. But all these laws are mere dead words on paper. Crores of children have been compelled to work in hazardous industries. According to the 2001 national census, there are about 12.6 million children aged between 5 to 14 engaged in different sectors and economic activities. India has the highest number of labourers under 14 in the world. Even today there are 32.7 lakh children who are forced to work in rural and 10.8 lakh in urban areas. The carpet industry in Mirzapur and Bhadoi is notorious for exploiting and employing children. The glass and bangle industries in Firozabad have more than 20000 children working in hazardous and dangerous conditions. The diamond industry also employs thousands of children. The more recent report of the ILO claims that child labour is quite significant in Tamil Nadu’s fireworks, matches or incense sticks industries. About 20 million children are condemned to work as domestic labourers and in restaurants. Many NGOs like ‘Bachpan Bachao Andolan’ of Kailash Satyarathi are working sincerely to eradicate child labour in India. Only concerted efforts by the government, the NGOs and the public can eradicate this evil from our civilized society.

Question 11:
Seshadri is a boy who has survived more than 25 major accidents. It makes you wonder about the cause of accidents in the Indian cities. You decide to write an article for the school magazine titled ‘Driving India Crazy’. Taking ideas from the data given alongside and your own ideas write the article.
Driving India Crazy                                                                                                                                   —Renu
Driving is no more a pleasure on Indian roads. Death stalks on the roads of major metros of India. Ironically, the capital of India has the dubious distinction of causing maximum deaths on its roads. About two thousand people lost their lives in accidents on the roads of Delhi.Bengaluru and Chennai are gradually catching up with Delhi. 490 people in Mumbai, 223 in Ahmedabad and 148 people died in road accidents in Kochi. Many persons may not be as lucky as Sehshadri who has survived more than 25 major accidents. The major cause of so many road accidents is the lack of road culture in India. People don’t follow the rules of the road. Rash and drunken drivers are the merchants of death. Drinking and driving has become the culture of the roads in India. The condition of roads is far from satisfactory. Pits and potholes cause many accidents. Haste and overtaking ultimately result in accidents and deaths. Better roads with adequate road signs and warnings are the need of the hour.

Question 12:
In India we face a common scene of a large family living in unhealthy conditions. Write an article on how increase in population leads to reduced availability of health services and deteriorating sanitary conditions.
Overpopulation and Unhealthy Living Conditions                                                                                     —Apurva
Overpopulation is the major threat that the nation is facing today. If we can’t put a hold on our bursting population, India will overtake China within thirty years. It will become the most populous country in file world. The population explosion has made a mockery of all our plans, developments and achievements. More and more people bring more and more poverty and miseries. The growing population is degrading the environment and the living standards of the people.
India has crossed a billion mark several years ago. We produce an Australia every year. More people means more mouths to feed. How will India feed its ever increasing population? People are increasing but the arable land, forests and natural resources are shrinking fast. And what about the health services? The less said the better. It will become increasingly difficult to provide ideal health services to so many people. Forests and green belts are disappearing. The environment and the ecology is being systematically destroyed. Providing shelters to so many people is a huge problem. Extremely unhealthy and unhygienic conditions prevail in all the metros of India. The Government must find out ways and means to control the rising population. China has imposed the one child system with wonderful success. They have freezed the population. Why can’t India? Anyone having more than one child must be heavily taxed. Those who cross the limit must be debarred from the public services. The family planning programme must be implemented in its true spirit.

Question 13:
You are a member of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in your locality. The following Pie-chart reflects the attitude of the people towards animals. In response to this, write an article to be published in the forthcoming issue of ‘The Week’ on why animals are ill-treated and what can be done to prevent it. You are Ramesh/Ragini.

Cruelty to Animals                                                                                                                                    —Ragini
Man suffers from a distorted complex. He always considers animals as inferior beings only fit for exploitation. Man has been using domestic and wild animals for his selfish ends.Many animal lovers joined together to form the ‘Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ’. The society has been working for the well-being and welfare of animals for many years. Its main aim is to change the attitude and thinking of people towards animals. It is quite sad that animals continue to be ill-treated, tortured and killed according to the whims of the people. About 15% of the people entertain the belief that animals are man’s slaves. They use, misuse and torture them accordingly. About 50% of the people exploit animals for selfish ends. Horses and oxen are used for transport, carrying loads and in agricultural activities. Dogs, cats and many birds are domesticated for fun, entertainment and convenience. Wild animals like elephants, tigers, lions and deer are victims of poaching and killing. Animals are forced to do acrobatic feats in circus shows. Unfortunately, about 35% of people don’t think about the animals at all. They are totally indifferent to them.
The Government and the animal lovers must work together to bring a change in the attitude of the people. Animals should not be killed and poached for fun, furs or financial gains. They should be treated with kindness,s care and sympathy. Cruelty towards animals must be legally punished.

Question 14:
Look at the histogram given below giving details of the disasters faced by people, especially the children in India who are most affected:

Write an article for a newspaper requesting the attention of agencies which have been involved in disaster management programmes to provide aid for these children so that they may be helped to get rid of these unhealthy fears and learn to live normal lives once again.
Disaster Management for Kids                                                                                                                    —Kunal
Natural calamities generally bring death and disaster on a large scale. Tsunami, waves, earthquakes, floods, droughts and epidemics have taken a heavy toll of human lives, particularly the children. The children who survive these disasters suffer the most. They are condemned to lead a life full of misery, insecurity, want and fear. Only the concerted efforts of the Government and the agencies involved in disaster management can help them lead normal lives again.
The natural calamities have tragically affected the lives of about 15000 children in recent years in India. The Tsunami waves and earthquakes created havoc on a large scale. About 5430 children became homeless due to the Tsunami and 5438 were the victims of the earthquakes. Floods displaced 2602 and droughts affected 2035 children. Epidemics affected 1313 children. Out of these figures, 1093 children live constantly in general fear; 110 children have withdrawn socially; 20 children have become deaf and 16 of them can’t speak any more. More than 450 children can’t sleep at night while 1164 can’t concentrate on anything. The tragedy is that 21 of them have become blind, 43 asthmatic and 276 are still in shock. 566 suffer from frequent headache and stomachache. About 850 children fear water and sound and 117 have refused to go to school.
Disaster management programmes have not proved up to the mark and up to the task. The Government and the concerned agencies should provide comprehensive aids and help to the survivors, particularly the children. They must provide nutritious food, clothes, shelters and medical aids to them. All efforts should be made to wipe out the scars left by these disasters.

Question 15:
Take help from the following clues and write an article on ‘More Ads Than News and Features’.
Hints: • Ads and ads on TV • Ads dominate print media • Mint money; attract buyers and sellers • Create styles, trends and fashions • Diluted news and features
‘More Ads Than News and Features’                                                                                                        —Kalpana
The world of liberalisation and globalisation has given birth to unsatiable consumerism. ‘Use and Throw’ is the slogan of the times. Things have to be sold. Selling gives money. And money makes the more go. One good commercial advertisement is worth more than hundreds of salesman. Such is the importance of advertisements in industry, trade, commerce and business. It is no exaggeration that on TV we have more ads than news. After every few minutes a ‘break’ is announced. And then starts a flood of commercial advertisements. You find the Shahanshah of Bollywood, Amitabh Bachchan selling Binani Cement. Then comes the ‘Badshah’ telling you to use ‘Fair and Lovely’ for your bright complexion. And our glittering damsels of Bollywood can’t be left behind. Ash sells L’Oreal; Katrina patronises ‘ Veet’ and Priyanka and Karina settling for ‘Bajaj Scooty’ and ‘Boro Plus’ respectively. News and features have become secondary. We have more adds than features or events.
TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines are full of advertisements. Ads are trend and style setters. Millions are earned just for a commercial advertisement of a few minutes! If things are to be sold then you can’t avoid patronising commercial advertisements. They are the lifeline of trade, business and the media.

Question 16:
A spate of rapes and murders of helpless young women in Delhi has shocked the conscience of the nation. Taking help from the information given below and inventing your own details, write an article on ‘Crime Against Women in Delhi’.
Hints: • Rape of a young woman at Dhaula Kuan • Rape and murder of a girl in Mangolpuri • Rape of a young lady in South Delhi • Kidnapping of a girl in East Delhi
Crime Against Women in Delhi                                                                                                                     —Amit
Delhi has earned the dubious distinction of being the crime capital of India. Life has become quite uncertain and unsafe in Delhi. The capital of India has become a grazing ground for kidnappers, rapists and murderers of women. The recent gang-rape of a young woman at Dhaula Kuan, and the rapes, murders and kidnappings in different parts of Delhi have shocked the whole nation. All the tall claims of Delhi Police to provide security to women have been proved totally hollow and false. Everyday we find news of crimes against women in the columns of newspapers or on TV channels.
Delhi is different from other metros like Mumbai or Kolkata so far crimes against women are concerned. A young woman can walk on the roads of Kolkata even at night but not in Delhi. Here, young ladies can’t venture to go out alone after the sun sets. Why has Delhi earned this notoriety? Of late, Delhi has developed a culture that has given birth to a class of criminals. They don’t have faith in traditional Indian culture which equates all other women to our sisters, daughters and mothers. The consumer culture equates women to a commodity. Young women from the North-east are the softest targets. The war against criminals must be fought on two fronts. First, the Delhi Police must ensure safety to women by regular patrolling at night and nabbing criminals at the earliest. On the cultural front, a widespread movement should be launched to help women in their fight against crimes and criminals.

Question 17:
Taking help from the information given below, write an article on ‘Make in India’s Digital Economy’.
Hints: • Leaders of world’s largest technology • companies visited India • Softbank to invest $10 billion into digital India • a delegation of Indian digital entrepreneurs visited China • India should take China’s cue • Chinese digital economy • a major driver of China’s growth story • Chinese digital boom by limiting access of global majors to the Chinese market • India, conversely an open door for global companies • Google and Facebook’s dominance in India • capturing 75% of India’s digital advertising pie • Even Flipkart is 80% foreign owned • India’s  digital revolution just begun.
Make inlndia’s Digital Economy                                                                                                                        —Ravi
In comparison to China, India’s digital revolution is just beginning. Prime Minister Narendra Modi wants the digital revolution to be an Indian phenomenon. He wants it to be a major driver of India’s economic growth story. He wants to reverse the trend. Instead of allowing and encouraging global companies to earn more globally out of India’s growth story, his slogan is “Make in India”.
The world is looking towards us. Leaders of all the world’s largest technology companies visited India in a very short span. They include Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Satya Nadella (Microsoft), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) and Pichai (Google). The announcement of Soft Bank of Japan of investing $10 billion into digital India is definitely a great news.
The Chinese digital economy directly employs hundreds of thousands of people, and giving indirectly, white-collar jobs to millions more. Digital China is now a major driver of China’s growth story. Why should India lag behind? India should adopt China’s success story. More than ever, global technology companies are eyeing India. Indian digital economy should be “Make in India” and not “Expand into India”. We should protect our domestic digital business growth. An open door policy for global companies must be reviewed. Foreign giants like Google and Facebook pocket 75% of India’s digital advertising pie. Why should we let our growth and money be exploited by outsiders? Let it be an Indian phenomenon. Let it be a ‘Make in India’s Digital Economy’.

Question 18:
Taking help from the information given in the input below along with your own views, write an article on ‘Disaster Management in India’ with special reference to the ‘Hudhud cyclone’ and the unprecedented floods in Kashmir
Hints: • National Institute of Disaster Management • a premier institute • training and capacity development programmes • constituted under an Act of Parliament in 1995 • statutory organisation status • The NIDM • a deemed university • NIDM served as a great agency when Tsunami hit India • train and conduct mock drills, crisis communication and a hazard hunt excercise • mock drills simulating an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 • played a key role during the Hudhud Cyclone in Andhra and Odisha • evacuated lakhs of marooned people with the help of army in Kashmir floods.
Disaster Management in India                                                                                                            —Raghav
National Institute of Disaster Management is a premier national institute. It trains people for capacity development programmes for managing natural disasters in India. The NIDM works under government’s directives to train and conduct checks to regulate effective earthquake and disaster control policies. Recently, Delhi witnessed one of the biggest mega mock drills conducted by the NIDM in India.
The buildings and infrastructures in India are quite vulnerable to calamities. They can’t withstand the rigours of a natural calamity. The Tsunami disasters in South India expose the unpreparedness and lack of skills in disaster management. The havoc caused by the floods and landslides in Kedamath only underlines our weaknesss or inefficiency in tackling natural disaster on such a scale. The NIDM can take due credit for its efficient work done during the ‘Hudhud’ cyclone. The cyclone struck the coastal areas of Andhra and Odisha. Proper warning and early evacuation in the affected areas limited losses and casualties. But again the NIDM proved quite ineffective when unprecedented floods rocked Srinagar and other parts of Jammu and Kashmir. It was the army and not the NIDM that stole the limelight by evacuating lakhs of the marooned people and saving their lives. The NIDM has a long way to go. It must prepare itself as a body that can cope with natural disasters with professional skills and efficiency.

Question 19:
Taking help from the information given below, write an article on ‘Problems of Half- educated Indian Youth’.
Hints: • High ideals of educationists lost * India has produced millions of frustrated and half educated youngsters • misfit for any walk of life • vast majority educated in government schools • most of the degree holders are virtually uneducated • teachers and employees perennially absent • some have duplicate jobs • education provides a few opportunities • unemployed youth flood into cities • add only disorder and crimes • government must introduce vocational training in carpentry, masonry, etc. • skills would open self-employment.
Problems of Half-educated Indian Youth                                                                                         —Jamini
India aims to achieve the desired target of universal education. However, the huge army of young girls and boys who are getting education in schools and colleges doesn’t present a very flattening picture. Instead of producing a powerful human resource. The country is producing millions of frustrated and half baked youngsters. They are misfit for all walks of life. Their half- baked knowledge and skills make them unsuitable for corporate jobs or professional services. Vast majority of young boys and girls receive education in government schools, colleges and institutions. The condition of our public schools is far from satisfactory. Millions of rupees are wasted without any fruitful result. Some of them especially in remote areas suffer from dirty premises, incompetent and unprofessional teachers. Lack of facilities for labs, libraries and playgrounds make most of our government schools and colleges quite unproductive and outdated institutions. Most of the degree and certificate holders are virtually unskilled or half-educated. These unemployed youth flood our cities. Their education provides them only a few gainful jobs or opportunities for advancement. They are condemned to lead miserable lives in slums adding to their disorder and crimes.
Problems of the youth must be addressed with all sincerity and seriousness. Vocational training should be introduced at a very early stage in schools. By giving a professional training in carpentry, masonry, fabrication, plumbing, etc., we can prepare them for professional and corporate jobs. These skills would open new avenues for self-employment too. Let our schools, colleges and educational institutes produce full baked and skilled young men and young women. They will then certainly prove assets to themselves as well as to the nation.

Question 20:
Taking help from the input given below along with your own views, write an article on ‘Female Foeticide-A Cause for Concern’.
Hints: • Female foeticide • increased manifold • birth of a female child • not taken happily • girl child a burden • perverted mindset of parents and relatives • more than 15 million female foetuses aborted every year • illiteracy • ignorance • poverty • superstitions • outdated ideas • myth that ‘moksha’ is not possible without a male child • crimes against women • laws have no teeth • evil must be rooted out • zero tolerance for female foeticide.
Female Foeticide — A Cause for Concern                                                                                  —Vandana
India is a land of contradictions. All our scriptures hail women as goddesses. Every virgin is considered as an incarnation of Durga or Laxmi or Saraswati. But this is only the one side of the story. The other story regarding the girl child puts our heads in shame. More than 15 million foetuses are aborted every year. All this is done not to have a girl child in the family. It exposes our double standards and hypocrisy. It is a cruel commentary on the morals, conduct and ethics of our society. Even in the 21st century, we have the old and outdated mindset and ideas. Ours is still a monstrously male dominated society. The parents and the families are not ready to take the birth of a girl child as a normal happy occasion. A girl child is considered an additional burden on the family. Obsession for a son takes root from age long outdated views and myths. It is purely a myth that one can’t attain ‘moksha’ or ‘liberation’ without a male child—the son. Simply ridiculous! Girls have excelled in all walks of life. They have proved their superiority as teachers, doctors, engineers, police officers and businessmen. What a man can do, a woman can do still better. In such a situation, the very idea of female foeticide seems immoral, perverted and inhuman. Unfortunately, prosperous states like Haryana and Punjab have shamed themselves as the leading states in female foeticide in the country. The girl-child sex-ratio has seen alarming trends. This evil has to be rooted out. Exemplary punishments must be given to those who indulge in such inhuman practices. Moreover, a sustained effort must be made by the government and voluntary bodies to change the mindset of the people. Such an inhuman and barbaric practice must have no place in our civilised society.

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