CBSE Class 9 English Main Course Book Unit 3 Environment Chapter 1 The Indian Rhinoceros
The Indian Rhinoceros: Where are they? Do they have a future
(See Main Course Book, Pages 45-46)
The list seems endless, doesn’t it? Are these things not shameful enough to set us pondering deeply over the harm that we are inflicting on nature’s creations?
- Why is the list ‘most shameful’?
- What is the name of the organisation that has been formed to protect and conserve wild life?
- Name at least ten other animals that are being exploited by man for commercial purposes. Surf the net to get your information and complete the following table.
|Animal||Part of the|
- Because we are oiling innocent animals to fulfill our greed.
- WWF: World Wildlife Federation
Animal Part of the body used Perfect 1. Elephant Teeth Ivory 2. Milk Fur Fur coat, bags 3. Crocodile Leather Bags, belts 4. Peacock Feathers Ornamentation 5. Tiger Nails, skin Tiger nail is supposed to have aphrodisiac properties. Hide is used as a sign of bravery. 6. While Meat Meat is very popular in japan 7. Siberian crane Meat Meat is used in certain parts of India 8. Leopard Skin Ornamental purpose 9. Stag Horns and Skin Decorative items 10. Owl The whole bird Rituals
Read this article about the great Indian Rhinoceros. [You will find the information useful for your group discussion in A.5.]
(See Main Course Book, Pages 46-48)
Summary of the extract: The Indian Rhinoceros is mainly found in north eastern part of the Indian peninsula. During early 1900s the population of rhino dipped to as low as about 100. Rhino conservation in India is a success story with current population standing at about 3000. Rhinos are usually solitary animals but make group for reproduction. They are big animals and have virtually no enemy because of their size. They are poached for their horns which are supposed to have aphrodisiac properties. Kaziranga is one of the major sanctuaries for rhinos.
In Units 1 and 2 you learnt and practised the skill of deducing the meanings of new words by using other words in the given context Now use that skill to deduce the meanings of words in the article you have read. Here is an example.
(a) They are solitary creatures with the exception of the mothers and calves and breeding pairs, although they sometimes congregate at bathing places. (See Main Course Book, Page 49)
Deduce the meanings of the following words from the passage you have just read, using other words in the context to help you. Copy and complete the following:
|Word||Words/clues that |
|What I think the |
|What the dictionary |
|Were you (S) (tick mark) |
|Word||Words/clues that |
|What I think the word means||What the dictionary says||Were you (/) (tick mark) or (X)|
|confined||To tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of Himalayas||Found only in the given area||Limited or restricted||✓|
|ranged||Throughout the entire stretch||Found in the given area||the region over which a population or species is distributed.||✓|
|overlapping||None||To cover the next part||to lap over (something else or each other); extend over and cover a part of; imbricate.||X|
|bobbing||Waving or bobbing heads||Shaking heads||a short, jerky motion||/|
|olfactory||None||Related to||of or pertaining to the||X|
|aggregation||Often greets each other||Living with each other||a group of organisms of the same or different species living closely together but less integrated than a society.||✓|
|plummeting||Population had fallen to||Declining||To decline suddenly and steeply||✓|
|mortality||None||Death||the relative frequency of deaths in a specific population; death rate.||X|
|vulnerable||Unguarded calves||Can be killed easily||open to assault; difficult to defend||✓|
|poached||None||Killed or caught||to trespass, esp. on another’s game preserve, in order to steal animals or to hunt.||X|
Punctuate the Following:
the indian rhinoceros was the first rhinoceros known to europeans rhinoceros comes from the greek rhino meaning nose and ceros meaning horn the indian rhinoceros is monotypic there are no distinct subspecies rhinoceros unicornis was the type of species for the rhinoceros family first classified by carolus linnaeus in 1758 the indian rhinoceros was the first rhino widely known outside its range the first rhino to reach europe in modem times arrived in lisbon on may 20,1515 king manual I of portugal planned to send the rhinoceros to pope leo x but the rhino perished in a shipwreck.
The Indian rhinoceros was the first rhinoceros known to Europeans. Rhinoceros comes from the Greek ‘rhino’ meaning nose and ‘ceros’ meaning horn. The Indian rhinoceros is monotypic. There are no distinct subspecies. Rhinoceros unicornis was the type of species for the rhinoceros family, first classified by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758. The Indian rhinoceros was the first rhino widely known outside its range. The first rhino to reach Europe in modem times arrived in Lisbon on May 20, 1515. King Manual I of Portugal planned to send the rhinoceros to Pope Leo X but the rhino perished in a shipwreck.
Imagine that you are conducting research on the conservation of a few animal species in India. You have been asked by the Wildlife Trust of India to prepare a report on the future of the YAK that lives in the Ladakh region of the Himalayan Mountains. In groups of four, discuss the issue and make notes for your report. Refer to the article in A.2 and the information in the box given here. (See Main Course Book, Pages 51-52) Within your group, discuss
- What is the problem? How has it arisen?
- What is the best way to preserve these species?
- Why do we need to preserve these species?
- What values are to be inculcated in the hearts of human beings? Why?
- What actions would you recommend to the World Wildlife Federation?
- How is global warming affecting these species?
A : Yaks are found in the Himalayan uplands. Domestic yaks are about 2 – 2.2 metre tall, while the wild ones are bigger measuring about 3 – 3.4 metre. How do they preserve themselves?
B: They have thick fur all over their body. The fur acts as insulation and keeps them warm in the extreme cold temperatures of the Himalayas. Why do we need to preserve them?
C: Domestic yak is used for milk, fur, meat and farming related work. They are also used as sports. The wild variety is poached for its fur and meat. What dangers do they face?
D : Because of increasing human activities around yak’s habitat they are facing extreme danger of becoming endangered. The growing pollution level and related global warming has resulted in melting of the Himalayan glaciers. This may reduce the habitable area for yak. What actions would you recommend to save them?
A: Like any other animal, yak is also part of the important food chain and helps maintain the ecological balance of the Himalayan region. An awareness programme should be undertaken to educate people about the values associated with yak. They also give unique identity to the Himalayan fauna. People’s participation can give wonderful results as has been seen in the case of black bucks of Rajasthan.
B: Some sanctuary should be earmarked for them on the lines of sanctuaries meant for tigers and rhinos. This will help in carrying out proper steps to preserve one of the important species of the Himalayan region.
In your discussions in groups, and in your individual written report, you will find the following language useful:
(See Main Course Book, Page 52)
As a Conservationist, write a report to the World Wildlife Federation, based on A. 5. Remember ‘CODER’
From: Anmol Sexana, Conservationist.
To: The Chairman
Subject: Status report on Yak of the Himalayas
This is with reference to our earlier discussions regarding status of yaks and plans for a better future for them in the Himalayas. The following are my findings and recommendations:
As you may be aware, currently, yaks are limited to the upperlands of the Himalayas. But the area of their habitat is shrinking at an alarming rate.
It is worth your attention that part of this problem has come because of increasing human activity in the region. The growing human population forces people to encroach into forest area. Moreover, growing industrial activities and vehicular population have led to an increase in overall temperature of the region. This, coupled with the global warming, is further reducing the size of the glaciers and in turn changing the climate drastically.
We will also empathise with the plight of yaks. They are facing a loss of their habitat and increased danger of poaching from humans. There is every likelihood that a day will come when yak will be an extinct species like Dodo.
I want to request you to take proper steps to improve the ground situation. Certain area can be earmarked as reserve area for yaks. Local people should be educated about the problem and taken into confidence. You will agree with me that people participation is important for the success of such programmes. The reserve area should be manned with people with relevant skills to implement the protection programme as per plan.
As yaks are facing a real danger to their existence, a concrete conservation programme needs to be chalked out in the Himalayan region. Apart from that other suitable areas should be discovered for expansion of yak population. As the most advanced species of this planet this is the responsibility of humans to take care of other living creatures of this planet. Anmol Saxena (Conservationist)
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