CBSE Class 9 English Workbook Solutions Unit 4 Modals
What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its regular use? List your answer below.
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
- We can use the ruler to scare animals like a dog.
- We can scare off a bird with it.
- We can play with it by swaying it like a sword.
- We can play with it by trying to keep it stand on its own.
- We can use it balancing with its middle on the point of a sharp object.
- We can use it in unlocking the lock of Maruti 800 if the key is lost.
- We can use it by tearing off papers etc. .
- It can be used in self-defence also.
- It can be used for removing loose soil.
- We can use it for making water canals in the kitchen garden.
- We can use it for drawing straight lines on paper.
Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
(a) You can use a ruler to dig holes.
(b) You can use my ruler to dig holes.
(c) You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ________.
In sentence (b) can is used to express ________ and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express ________.
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should are called Modal verbs.
Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you are not able to do now because of the fast-paced life.
e.g. I could play in the open ground but now I can’t.
I could visit my aunt on weekends but …………
- I could climb a tree in my childhood but now I can’t.
- I could dive into a well but now I can’t.
- I could run very fast for miles together but now I can’t.
- I could walk with a heavy load on my head but now I can’t.
- I could dig with a spade but not now.
Write a paragraph about a newly devised robot that can be of great help to home-makers.
Zoomo, the robot can make tea when guests arrive …………
B. Necessity, obligation and permission
The table below provides you with a list of modals that are used to express necessity and permission.
See the Workbook on page 51
Write the contracted forms. Practise saying these words.
e.g. ought not to – oughtn’t to.
- cannot _______
- need not _______
- should not _______
- must not _______
- do not _______
- did not _______
The following note comes from an army booklet, “Advice to New Recruits.” Complete the instructions by filling in the blanks with suitable modals.
Welcome to Ranor Barracks!
Follow the rules, accept the advice and you will find your life in the army interesting and fulfilling.
You ________ have your hair cut very short in the first month. After that you ________
grow it longer but it ________ never touch your collar. Your uniform ________ be kept clean and tidy. Boots and buttons ________ be polished daily. You ________ use cell phones on the campus but you ________ switch them off during the training sessions. Before joining you ________ have a medical check-up. You ________ undergo medical examinations once a year during service.
Welcome to Ranor Barracks !
Follow the rules, accept the advice and you will find your life in the army interesting and fulfilling.
You must have your hair cut very short in the first month. After that you may grow it longer but it must never touch your collar. Your uniform must be kept clean and tidy. Boots and buttons have to be polished daily. You cannot use cell phones on the campus but you must switch them off during the training sessions. Before joining you must have a medical check-up. You have to undergo medical examinations once a year during service.
Write what each symbol means using can, can’t, must, mustn’t.
c. Duties and Privileged
In some schools the student-council members are assigned duties at the beginning of every academic year.
Write a job description to be given to the newly elected Environment Monitor of your school.
You may do this individually. Later your class as a whole can come out with one duty list to be displayed on the soft-board. You may use the words given in the box below.
can, may, can’t, mustn’t, must, should, have to.
Duties and privileges of an Environment Monitor.
e.g. You must ensure that the campus is clean.
Did you know?
should and ought to have similar meanings. They show obligation or duty. However there is a slight difference in meaning.
ought to has an objective meaning whereas should is more subjective.
We ought to / should save water.
We ought to save money but we are unable to. (In this sentence should will not be appropriate.).
You must ensure that the campus is clean. You must keep a vigil on the greenery of the campus while coming in and going out. You must report to the teacher if any student throws a plastic wrapper of chocolates, toffees, biscuits etc. Before that you can ask the errant to desist from throwing such bits of plastic here and there. You must ensure that the trees, hedges and flower plants are in a good condition and are properly taken care of by the gardeners. You can ask the gardeners to prune the bushes and trees wherever they are needed. At no point you must allow the degradation of the environment ……
The following statements express varying degrees of certainty. Look at the underlined modals in each of the statements. Then number the sentences in order of certainty. Mark the sentence No. 1 if it is most likely certain and the least likely as no. 5.
(a) The lady in the formal attire may be Mr. Chawla’s secretary. (a) ___________
(b) The foreigners accompanying him could be the (b) ___________ newly appointed interpreters
(c) The man in the safari talking to someone on the (c) ____________ cell phone mustbe Mr. Chawla.
(d) Mr. Chawla will be the chief guest. (d) ___________
(e) The people following him might be from the media. (e) ___________
On a cold winter night you hear a loud shrieking noise at repeated intervals. What might have caused this?
Write down your ideas using the pattern below.
- It might have been some accident in which the survivors might have been shrieking for help.
- It could have been some helpless woman being tortured by a drunk husband.
- It must have been someone crying for help at being tortured by the bullies.
- It might have been an evil spirit shrieking at being dealt with by a black magic practitioner.
E. Intention and Prediction
Make five promises to your friend expressing your willingness to do something.
e.g. I shall never be late to school.
Promises to Keep!
- I shall always speak to my class fellows with respect.
- I shall obey my worthy teachers.
- I will never shout at my juniors.
- I will always complete my homework.
- I shall never make a noise in the class.
Did you Know?
One of the puzzling things in English is to know when to use shall and when to use will.
Whenever we desire to express some command, promise, threat or determination shall is used in the second and third person and will is used in the first person.
You shall receive your prize tomorrow, (promise)
He shall not enter the lab again, (determination)
I will reward her for her diligence, (promise)
I will report to the Principal if you don’t submit your homework, (threat)
I will never use abusive language, (determination)
The Environment in Danger
What do you think will happen to the following?
Choose four, and write one sentence about each using the modals below and/ or expressions from 10.
(a) The ozone layer
(b) The Taj Mahal
(c) The Maldives
(d) The rainforests
(e) Weather patterns
(f) Fossil fuels
(g) The Ganges delta
e.g. In my opinion, the hole in the ozone layer will grow bigger and more people will get skin cancer.
(a) The ozone layer protecting the Earth from harmful sun rays is being destroyed by C.F.Cs. (chloro fluoro carbons) used in aerosol spray cans and refrigerators.
In my opinion, the hole in the Ozone Layer will grow bigger and more people will get skin cancer.
(b) The Taj Mahal is being corroded and disfigured by chemicals and acid rain if pollution is not checked.
In my opinion, the white marble will corrode and this wonderful piece of architecture will crumble.
(c) The Maldives, low-lying islands, are in danger of being drowned by rising water levels caused by melting ice-caps and the global warming due to the Greenhouse Effect.
In my opinion the water levels will rise higher and these islands will disappear from the face of the earth.
(d) The rainforests, ‘the lungs of the world’, are being destroyed rapidly for economic gain.
In my opinion, the Earth will soon stop receiving rain and it will be a desert.
(e) Weather patterns are changing mainly due to Greenhouse Effect caused by poison-ous gases emitted in the sky, deforestation etc.
In my opinion, weather patterns will change due to Greenhouse Effect and the earth will be without any life on it.
(f) Fossil fuels—gas, oil, coal, etc.—being used up very quickly will be exhausted by A.D. 2030 according to scientists.
In my opinion, if fossil fuels are used at the present rate, the Earth’s eco-system will be destroyed.
(g) The Ganges delta is being silted up because deforestation high up the river valley is leading to soil erosion causing the fertile earth wash down into the river and floods.
In my opinion, if deforestation is not checked, it will result in more floods turning the fertile delta into an infertile waste land.
Saving the World
(a) I think the Greenhouse Effect ought to be checked by banning C.F.Cs. and other pollutants.
(b) I think the Government should ban all chemicals and industrial smoke etc, (of the Refineries) reaching the Taj Mahal.
(c) I think countries at international level should sit together to find out ways to save the Maldives from sinking.
(d) I think the Government should ban deforestation and encourage afforestation.
(e) I think all the countries of the world should ban the use of things causing changes in the weather patterns.
(f) I think the Government ought to find out other alternative sources of energy.
(g) I think afforestation of the Delta ought to be undertaken at an emergency level.
Read an extract from the poem New Year Resolution
See the Workbook on pages 57-58
Try and compose a poem conveying your resolutions. Let the first stanza be the same.
The first will he never to yawn
in public be it noon, dusk or dawn.
The second ………….
Students to try on their own to write such a poem as demanded.
F. mixed modals
Match the sentences in A with their meanings in B.
You should have taken your keys.
You could/might have lost your keys at the cinema.
You must have left your keys at home.
It is possible that you left your keys. You are to blame for leaving your keys.
I think that you probably left your keys.
While you were away on holiday, your house was burgled. Write a letter to your friend to tell him or her about it.
Use the underlined expressions in Column A above to help you. Include…
- how the burglar could have got in,
- how he knew you had gone away, and
- what you could have done to prevent the burglary.
6 January, 2016
I regret to inform you that my house has been burgled while I was away on a holiday. The burglar opened the lock of the main gate with my own key and decamped with the valuables.
I usually return home from office at 6 pm. When I did not turn up for two days, the burglar must have concluded that I would not come on that fateful day.
I usually keep my keys in a chink in the inside of the outer wall. I should have taken the keys with me. Or I must have informed my neighbour facing my house of my holidaying. The burglar might not have entered the house had I been a bit careful.
Look at the following pair of sentences. Underline the modals and discuss why each one is used in that sentence.
I must not take those pills. (I’m not allowed.)
I need not take those pills. (It is not compulsory but I may if I wish.)
1. (a) I can’t go to the meeting because I’m not a member.
(b) I needn’t go to the meeting if I don’t wish to.
2. (a) I can swim a length of the pool.
(b) I can swim in the pool on Saturdays.
3. (a) You ought to get a nice present for her.
(b) You have to get a nice present for her.
4. (a) Can I go to the toilet?
(b) May I be excused?
5. (a) I may come tomorrow if I have the time.
(b) I might come tomorrow but it’s going to be difficult.
1. (a) Can’t—I’m not allowed to go.
(b) Needn’t—It is not compulsory but I may go if I wish.
2. (a) Can—I am physically able to swim a length of the pool.
(b) Can—The authorities permit me to swim on Saturdays.
3. (a) Ought—You have a moral obligation to get her a nice present.
(b) Have to—You are being ordered to get her a nice present.
4. (a) Can—This is a less formal/polite way of asking permission to go to the toilet.
(b) May—This is a more formal/polite way of asking permission to leave.
5. (a) May—Implies that it is slightly more likely than in sentence (b).
(b) Might—Implies that it is slightly less likely than in sentence (a).
See the Workbook on pages 60, 61, 62, 63, 64
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