Energy Generation from Waste
Energy can be produced utilizing wastes from various sources. The major sources are:
- Agriculture waste,
- Industrial waste, and
- Municipal waste.
Agricultural wastes are mainly crop residues. When dried they can be used as fuel. Straw, jute sticks and other crop remains are being used traditionally by the village people for cooking and partial boiling of paddy before milling and other heating requirements.
In certain industries, the waste materials can be utilized as a source of energy. Food processing industry, jute industry, sugar industry, paper industry and cotton textiles industry are the major industries where the materials can be effectively utilized for the production of heat and electricity.
Various technologies have been developed for effective use of the bagasse, jute, cotton and paper residues for energy production.
Both solid and liquid municipal wastes can be the sources of energy. Bio-degradable materials in the municipal waste can be converted into bio-gas through bacterial anaerobic digestion in properly designed digesters. Solid municipal wastes can be dried and pelletized to produce fuel pellets. Also large scale power production can be achieved by burning solid municipal waste by ‘Laser Torches’. Some of these technologies are, however, under trial production only.