NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara
NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
1.What have been the methods used to study the ruins of Hampi over the last two centuries? In what way do you think they would have complemented the information provided by the priests of the Virupaksha temple?
Ans. The engineer and antiquarian Colonel Colin Mackenzie brought the ruins of Hampi to light in 1800. He worked for many years in East India Company and prepared the first Survey maps of this site. His earlier information were based on the memories of priest of the Virupaksha temple and shrine of Pampadevi. From 1856 onwards, photographers started to record the pictures of monuments. The picture of the sites helped the scholars to study them. Dozens of inscription were collected from Virupaksha temples and other temples situated around temples.
Historians collected information from these sources other sources such as accounts of foreign travellers and literature composed in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit languages used by the historians so that the History of the city could be reconstructed. These functions complemented the information given priests of Virupaksha temple.
2.How were the water requirements of Vijayanagara met?(or)
Explain how the people of Vijavanagara obtained water for their needs.
Ans. The requirement of water in Vijayanagara was fulfilled from the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra. This flowed in the north-eastern direction and was surrounded by stunning granite hills. It flowed down to the river Tungabhadra.
3.What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city?
Ans. Advantages of enclosing agriculture land within fortified area:
(i) It had an elaborate canal system which drew water from the Tungabhadra to provide irrigation facilities.
(ii) It enclosed agricultural tracts, cultivated fields, gardens and forests.
(iii) This enclosure saved crops from being eaten by wild animals.
(iv) In the medieval period, sieges were laid to starve the defending armies into submission. These sieges lasted for many months or many years. So the rulers of Vijayanagara adopted and elaborated a strategy to protect the agricultural belt and built large granaries.
(i)This system was very expensive.
(ii)During adverse, circumstances this system proved inconvenient to the farmers.
(iii)The farmers had to seek the permission of gate-keeper to reach their field.
(iv)If enemy encircled the field the farmer could not look after their field.
4.What do you think was the significance of the rituals associated with the mahanavami dibba?
Ans. The mahanavami Dibba was the King’s palace in Vijayanagara though there is no definite evidence. From the available source we can guess that it had very beautiful wooden structure with base of the platform was covered with relief carvings. The Mahanavami Dibba had a very impressive platform known as “the audience hall”. It was surrounded by high double walls a street running between them.
Many rituals were associated with the Mahanavami dibba. Here the Hindu Festival Mahanavami or Navaratri were celebrated with a great pomp and show in the months of September-October. This festival continued for 9 days. The rulers of Vijayanagara Empire displayed their power, prestige and suzerainty. On this occasion several ceremonies were performed this included:
(i)Worship of the different gods and goddesses
(ii)Worship of the state horse.
(iii)The sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
(iv)The main attraction of this occasion were:
(c)Processions of horses, elephants, chariots and soldiers.
All these ceremonies presented before the king and his guests. On the last day of the festival, the king inspected his army as well as the nayakas of the army. He also accepted gift from the nayakas.
6.Discuss whether the term “royal centre” is an appropriate description for the part of the city for which it is used.
Ans.The term “royal centre” is an appropriate description for the part of the city for which it is used because the Royal center had more than 60 temples. Most of these temples were constructed by the ruler of Vijayanagara Empire to express their supremacy. The royal centre had 30 palaces. These were made of perishable material. A brief description of the building of Royal centre are as given below:
(i) One of the most beautiful buildings in the royal centre is the Lotus Mahal. It was named by British travellers in the nineteenth century. While the name is certainly romantic, historians are not quite sure what the building was used for. One suggestion, found in a map drawn by Mackenzie, is that it may have been a council chamber, a place where the king met his advisers.
(ii) Most temples were located in the sacred centre. One of the most spectacular of these is the Hazara Rama Temple. This was probably meant to be used only by the king and his family.
7.What does the architecture of buildings like the Lotus Mahal and elephant stables tell us about the rulers who commissioned them?(or)
Attempt a brief note on Lotus Mahal and elephant stables.(or)
What does the architecture of building like Lotus Mahal and elephant stables tell us about the rulers who commissioned them?(or)
Give a brief description of Lotus Mahal, situated in Royal centres of the Vijayanagara a Empire.
Ans. The architecture of buildings like the Lotus Mahal and elephant stables tell us that the rulers had adopted Indian traditional symbol, signs and totems. They were Hindu by faith but they were liberal by nature.
Lotus Mahal: Lotus Mahal was so named by the British travellers in the 19th century.
Historians have different opinions regarding the use of this building. According to a few this building was used as a council of chamber where the king met his advisers.
8.What are the architectural traditions that inspired the architects of Vijayanagara? How did they transform these traditions?
Ans. The rulers of Vijayanagara were known for their many innovations in the sphere of architectural traditions. They built many new temples which presented their architectural skills. They also added many new features in the temple architecture. For example, they built gopurams and royal gateways. The towers of the central shrines signalled the presence of the temple from a great distance. But the royal gateways surpassed the kings. They showed that the kings had full command over the resources, techniques and skills.
9.What impression of the lives of the ordinary people of Vijayanagara can you cull from the various descriptions in the chapter?
Ans. Ordinary people were those people who did not take part in power structure. They spoke different languages and follow different religious traditions. They consisted of small traders and local merchants. They use to live in cities, trade centres, port , towns and villages. Local communities of merchants known as kudirai chettis or horse merchants participated in exchanges.
People such as peasants, workers, slaves, etc. were also included in ordinary people.
The workers were known as “Vipra viodin”. This group of ironsmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, sculpture-makers, etc. Who often quarrelled mutually for their right. It seems that during that period, need was felt to frame laws for the society to execute social justice.
Kaikkol known as the weavers were in large numbers. They lived near temples. They played significant role in running the administration of the temple. In Vijayanagara state there were Gadarias known as Kambalattar. They followed the customs of polyandry. The special characteristic was that the wife was elder to the husband. Their women had physical relations with the husband’s kinsmen like father, brothers were prevalent.
There was an orthodox bigot section in Vijayanagara called as reddis who owned the land. They had enough influence in the Telugu region of Vijayanagara. In the society there were a few low class people, who were non-influential. They were Domber, Marva,Jogi, Paraiyan, Boi Kallaar, etc. Some low caste people converted into Christianity under the influences of Portuguese.
10.On an outline map of the world, mark approximately Italy, Portugal, Iran and Russia.
Ans.Followed by routes to reach Vijayanagara from Italy and Portugal:
The travellers crossed the Red Sea, Arabian Sea and then, they taken land route to reach South India.
Atlantic Ocean touching the Cape of Good Hope and then Indian Ocean to reach Malabar of India. From here they took land route to reach Vijayanagara.
The Italian travellers crossed the Arabian Sea and then Indian Ocean and through Malabar coast they reached Vijayanagara. From Iran via Afghanistan and modern Pakistan they would have taken land route upto Karnataka, India.
Russian came to India via Afghanistan. They crossed modern Punjab in Pakistan, central India crossing Vindhyachal, Satpura to Karnataka.