Rajendra Chola I, also known as Rajendra Chola the Great, like his father Rajaraja was equally important powerful king of Chola Empire. He ruled from 1012 A.D to 1044 A.D. Like the Rashtrakutas he directed his arms towards the north and secured victories over a number of principalities of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
A Chola inscription records that Rajendra Chola I subjugated Orissa, South Kosala and parts of Bengal. To commemorate his victory over the Gangetic plain, he took the title Gongoikonda and erected a new capital called Gongoikonda-cholapuram near Chidambaram in Trichinopoly district.
Like his father, Rajendra Chola I sent a powerful fleet which crossed the Bay of Bengal and invaded the Sailendra Empire comprising Malaya Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, etc. His intention was probably to establish political and commercial control over the islands. He was successful in his attempt. Rajendra Chola I was also said to have sent a trade and diplomatic mission to China. He probably annexed the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Thus, under Rajendra Chola I, the Cholas became a mighty power.
The glory of the Cholas began to decline after the death of Rajendra Chola I. Three successive kings Rajadhiraja I (1044-1050), Rajendra II (1050- 1063) and Vira Rajendra (1063-1070) ruled the Chola empire. After Kulottenga (1070-1120), the last powerful ruler of the Chola dynasty, there being no competent king to hold the kingdom it was disintegrated by the thirteenth century A.D.