Q.1.Mention any four social evils prevailing in London in 1870V Mention any two steps taken by the authorities to check these social evils. (CBSE Sept. 2012)
Ans. Increasing criminal activities
(ii) Child labour.
(iii) Falling public morality,
(iv) Increasing rate of unemployment
(i) Population of criminals was counted, in an attempt to discipline, the population, the authorities imposed high penalties.
(ii) Compulsory Elementary Education Act 1570 was passed.
Q.2. How was family life transformed because of city life ? Which moral values can you learn from the rural life?
Ans. (i) The dry encouraged spirit of Individualism
(ii) The public space became increasingly a male preserve and the domestic sphere was seen as the proper place tor women.
(iii)Gradually women came to participate in political movement for suffrage
Values of rural life :
(i) Rural life was based on collective values.
(ii) Communities were interdependent.
Q.3. Explain the pollution problem of Calcutta. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011.2012]
How did the development of cities influence the ecology and environment in late nineteenth century ? Explain by giving an example of Calcutta (Kolkata). (CBSE 2009 D)
Explain any three causes of air pollution in Calcutta (Kolkata) in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Which body- controlled Industrial pollution ? [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]
Ans. (i) Calcutta or Kolkata had a long history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter. Since the cry was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate a thick black smog.
(ii)Burning of dung and wood fuel were the main sources of air pollution.
(iii) Colonial authorities at first intended to clear I the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway lines introduced in 1855, brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture — coal from Raniganj. The high content of ash in the Indian coal was a problem Many pleas were made to banish the dirty mills from the city, but without any results,
(iv) Calcutta (Kolkata) was the first city to get | smoke nuisance legislation in 1863.
(v) The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance I Commission finally managed to control the industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was for more difficult.
Q.4. Explain the impact of industrialisation on children.
Ans. (i) A large number of children were pushed into low paid work, often bit their parents. In Most of the children were underpaid so ill was more profitable to make A living from crime rather working in a small underpaid factory.
(iii) It was only after the passage of the Compulsory Elementary Education Act 1S70 and the Factory Act that children were kept out industrial work.
Q.5. Explain the impact of industrialisation on the life of women.
Explain any five, major changes that came in women’s life of nineteenth century of Britain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Women as workers: Factories employed large number of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries With techno!og:cal developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs, and were forced to work within households. The 1861 census recorded a quarter of million domestic servants in London, of whom the vast majority were women, many of them recent migrants. A large number of women used their homes to increase family income by raking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing or matchbox making. However, there was a change once again in the twentieth century. As women got employment in wartime industries and offices, they withdrew from domestic service.
(ii) Women and conservatives: Men and
women did no: have equal access to this new urban space. As women lost their industrial jobs and conservative people railed against their presence in public spaces, women were forced to withdraw into their homes. The public space became increasingly a male preserve, and the domestic sphere was seen as the proper place for women.
(iii) Women and political movements: Most political movements of the nineteenth century, such as Chartism (a movement demanding the vote for all adult males! and the 10-hour movement (limiting hours of work in factories), mobilised large number of men. Only gradually did women come to participate in political movements for suffrage that demanded the right to vote for women, or for married women’s rights to property (from the l870s).
(iv) Women and war time: The two world wars of the 20th century once again transformed the life of women They were employed in large numbers to meet war demands.