SST Economics CBSE Class 10 Sectors of Indian Economy SAQ
Q.1. What is under employment ? Explain with an example. [CBSE Sept. 2013]
Ans. (i) It is situation under which people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
(ii) For example to cultivate a field only two workers are required but the whole family of five people is working as they have nowhere else to go for work.
(iii) This type of unemployment is also known as disguised unemployment.
Q-2. What are secondary activities? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. The occupations which produce finished goods by using the products of primary activities as raw materials are included in secondary activity. Manufacturing of cloth from cotton, sugar from sugarcane and steel from iron ore are important examples of secondary activities.
All these are secondary activities because the final product is to be produced not by nature but has to be made by men and therefore, some process of manufacturing is essential. Let us take an example of cloth. Though the primary product, i.e., cotton is produced by nature, but it cannot be used directly by us in . this form. So to convert it into usable form some process of manufacturing is essential. This can be done in a factory or at home with simple tools.
Q.3.What are tertiary activities ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans.Tertiary activity consists of all service occupations. Transport, communication, trade, health, education and administration are important examples of tertiary activities. These tertiary activities help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good, but they are an aid or a support for the production process. So these are also known as support services.
Q.4. What are primary activities ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. Primary activity includes those occupations which are closely related to man’s natural environment. Gathering, hunting, fishing, lumbering, animal rearing, farming and mining are some of important examples of primary activities. Let us understand the concept with the help of an example-Animal rearing or dairy is a primary activity. In this activity, farmers are dependent on the biological process of the animals, and the availability of fodder, etc. The product, milk, is also a natural product.
The most important feature of primary sector is that it forms the base for all other activities.
Q.5. What is GDP ? Who is responsible for Q.8. collecting data for the GDP in India ?[CBSEComp. (O) 2008,14]
Ans. It is the value of goods and services produced within a country during a given time period.
In India, the mammoth task of measuring the GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry. This ministry, with the help of various government departments of all the Indian States and Union Territories, collects information relating to the total volume of goods and services and their prices, and then estimates the GDP.
Q.6. What is disguised unemployment ? Ans. Explain. [CBSE 2010 (D), Sept. 2010]
How far is it correct to say that disguised unemployment can also be called underemployment ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) It is a situation in which more workers are working in an activity than required. The people who are actually engaged in such an activity appear to be employed, but are not fully employed.
(ii) For example, if for the cultivation of one hectare land, 10 workers are required, but instead of 10 workers, 15 workers are working. In this case, 5 workers are disguised unemployed. In such cases, even if the surplus workers are removed, the production will not suffer. ,
(iii) This type of unemployment is basically found in agriculture.
(iv) This type of unemployment can also be called underemployment because workers perform below their productivity level.
Q.7. What is an organised sector ? Explain [CBSE 2009 (O)]
Ans. (i) An organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work.
(ii) They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops Act, etc.
(iii) They are called organised because they have some processes and procedures.
Q.8.What is an unorganised sector ? Explain.
Ans. (i) An Unorganised Sector is a sector which is not registered by the government.
(ii) The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
(iii) There are rules and regulations, but these are not followed.
Q.9.Who are the people that work in an unorganised sector ? Mention any two social values which you have learnt from the working conditions of unorganised sector.
Ans. (i) In the rural areas, the unorganised sector mostly comprises the landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths).
(ii) In the urban areas, the unorganised sector mainly comprises workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport, etc. It also consists of those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers, etc.
(iii) Majority of workers from scheduled castes, tribes and backward communities find themselves in the unorganised sector.
Social Values :
(i) Most of the people working in unorganised sector belong to backward communities.
(ii) These workers face social discrimination.
Q.10.Distinguish between final goods and the intermediate goods.
Q.11. Distinguish between the organised and the unorganised sector. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]
Q.13. What are the objectives of NREGA 2005 ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Ans.(i) This scheme targets the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the poor women, who suffer from poverty.
(ii) To provide livelihood to the people below the poverty line, this scheme guarantees 100 days of wage employment in a year to every rural household in the country.
(iii) Under this scheme, the Gram Panchayat after proper verification will register households, and issue job cards to registered households. The job card is the legal document that entitles a person to ask for work under the Act and to get work within 15 days of the demand for work, failing which an unemployment allowance would be payable.
Q.14. What are the two sectors of economic activities on the basis of the ownership of resources ? Explain.
Ans. The public and the private sector.
(a) Public Sector : It is the sector which is controlled, managed and owned by the government. For example, the Indian Railways.
(b) Private Sector : A private sector is owned, controlled and managed by an individual or by a group of individuals. For example, the Reliance Industries Ltd.
Q.15. Describe any four points of importance of primary sector in the Indian economy. [CBSE 2008 Comp. (D)]
Ans. (i) Primary sector contributes more than 20% to the GDP of India.
(ii) Its employment share is more than 55%.
(iii) It is the most labouring sector of Indian economy.
(iv) It covers agriculture, dairy, fishing, forestry which all contribute to the Indian economy.
Q.16. Enumerate the various causes of rural unemployment in India. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Lack of skill and education : The most important factor responsible for rural unemployment is lack of education and skill.
(ii) Domination of primary sector : Most of the people of rural areas are involved in primary activities. The possibility of unemployment in primary sector is more.
(iii) Lack of Industrialization : Even after more than 60 years of independence more than 80% of the people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Chances of disguised unemployment are very high in agriculture.
Q.17. How can employment opportunities be generated in the tourism and information and technology centres ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Government should encourage tourism by providing more facilities to the tourists.
(ii) Medical treatment in India is very cheap as compared to developed nations.
(iii) Vocational training should be merged in main-stream education pattern.
(iv) Research and development work should be promoted.
(v) Government should set up more technology parks.