The decline of the Sayyid Dynasty (Delhi Sultanate) Essay

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The decline of the Sayyid Dynasty (Delhi Sultanate)

With the death of Mubarak Shah, decline of the Sayyid dynasty set in. His successor Muhammad Shah was a very weak ruler. Sarwar-ul-mulk completely dominated him. The Khatri assassins acquired great influence which was deeply resented by the Sultan. Enemies of Sarwar-ul-mulk also began to organize vengeance. Kamaluddin and Illahdad Lodi, the governor of Sambhal, took a leading part in this. By their efforts, Sarwar-ul-mulk and his associates were killed and Kamaluddin was appointed the Wazir.

Ibrahim Shah Sharqi took advantage of the weakness of Muhammad Shah to occupy his south-eastern district. In 1440, Mahmud Khilji the ruler of Malwa sought to capture Delhi itself. Some of the Sayyid nobles were in secret league with him. But Muhammad Shah was able to save himself by calling to his aid Bahlul, the Afghan governor of Sarhind.

Mahmud Shah Sharqi extended his pressure on Sayyid territory. Muhammad shah conciliated him by offering his sister or daughter in marriage to him. Mahmud Shah for the time being desisted from further attack, probably in deference to the wishes of his Sayyid wife.

But Alauddin Alam shah the son and successor of Muhammad Shah was worse than even his   father. During his reign, power of the Afghans rapidly increased and Bahlul Lodi became the master of the whole of the Punjab. Hamid Khan, the wazir of the Sultan, was his personal friend. Although Hamid was doing his best to uphold the authority of the sultan but the latter could not distinguish even between friends and foes. Consequently since 1447 he started living at Badaun despite the protest of Hamid Khan and later at the instigation of some nobles, he ordered even his execution. Just then Bahlul Lodi attacked Delhi and Hamid Khan who had somehow escaped from Badaun to Delhi joined hands with him and put an end to the Sayyid dynasty by placing him on the throne of Delhi Sultanate.

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